Here for comparison is submitted the translation of article from the russian magazine "the Science and life" 7 2002. In given below the journal's article is described the project so-called "the Boiler of explosive combustion". It is supposed to blow up small thermonuclear bombs in the gigantic hermetically made container. This device certainly will allow to receive controlled nuclear synthesis with an absolute guarantee. But the cost of this power installation will be considerable - it is necessary to do a big foundation ditch to build a steel tank of the huge sizes and thickness etc. As well as at all traditional installations for the decision of problem controlled nuclear synthesis, be whether it the TOKAMAK's, the laser synthesis or the accelerators on counter beams etc., the specified installation does not differ by compactness and she is not suitable to transportation. Therefore the majority of experts consider this device as an extreme measure for that case, if not it will be possible to solve problem of the controlled nuclear synthesis in other ways. The article also contains the interesting information on exhaustion of traditional kinds of energy carriers, such the information in the text are denoted by a color marker.
However, in my opinion the problem of controlled nuclear synthesis can be solved by much more simple and cheap way with the help of the cavitation. Therefore I recommend the reader to not lose in vain time and to return to reading mine WEB page.



Deuterium - an isotope of hydrogen with one superfluous neutron in a nucleus - non-polluting, cheap and accessible in unlimited quantities the fuel as it can is separated from usual water. In one ton of water his is so many, what he can replace 250 tons of petroleum. Accordingly and attention to him increased. However as yet, the truth, only in the scientific community. For example, scientists from the Russian federal nuclear centre - the All-Russia scientific research institute of technical physics (RFNC - ASRITP) of city of Snezhinsk (earlier: Chelyabinsk - 70) offer to blow up small thermonuclear bombs. They have persuasion, what thus it is possible to rescue the world from power famine and ecological accident, and the country - from poverty. The Russian armourers once have already rescued the world from the third world war, having created the strategic nuclear and thermonuclear weapon. What they can offer to XXI century?

The atomic scientists from the Snezhinsk town are ready to design and construct the electric power installation with the explosive deuterium power (EDP) - "the boiler of explosive combustion" (BEC). It is such cask from reinforced concrete, with diameter near 150 and height of 200 meters, thickness of a wall - 35 meters. Inside she is coated with 20-centimetric steel, and from above she will is covered a soil with thickness more than of hundred meters. In this device, which name as the project BEC10. inside a protective layer of liquid sodium with the help of explosions deuterium by power up to 10 kiloton in trinitrotoluol equivalent it is possible to receive each half an hour 37 gigawatt thermal energy that is equivalent to 25 million tons of a petroleum equivalent per one year. By the way, explosive technologies for mankind no in wonder. We move the automobiles, inside which every second there are tens the explosions creating pressure much greater, than in BEC. Powerful explosions for the peace purposes too not news. Development of the concept of the explosive deuterium power was preceded the creation by experts RFNC - ASRITP (Russian Federal Nuclear Centre - All-Russian the scientific-research Institute of Technical Physics) under the direction of academicians E.I. Zababahin, E.N. Avrorin and B.V. Litvinov of the "pure" deuterium charges. After all the scientific and technical potential of institute was initially directed not only for creation of the weapon. For industrial using, for example, were invented one and a half tens types of the nuclear warheads, nine of which were repeatedly used for acoustic measurements and suppressions of gas fires, for burial places of the toxic products and prevention of explosions of methane in collieries, for many other projects. "Daylighting" and "tillages" of minerals have demanded creation of nuclear charges the even with greater cleanliness with smaller quantity of the radioactive splinters (and they were created), than it is required for work BEC. The majority of co-authors of the concept of the BEC participated in these works and certainly they remember "the details, in which hide the devil". My interlocutor in 1983 has received the State premium from the "diagnostics of thermonuclear burning". About ideas of nuclear explosive power

he has learned in the beginning of 60th years from foreign publications, though in the USSR the specialists say from the end 40. At that time I no very pay attention to this idea because be strong propaganda "of the future successes" in controlled thermonuclear synthesis (CNS), breeder power, and of the "inexhaustible reserves of petroleum". Illusions disappeared in that order to the beginning 70, 80, 90 th years. At last his first publication, in which weaved from the doubts, be approved, and in 1993 she was issued. Tells the GENNADY ALEKSEEVICH IVANOV the doctor of physical and mathematical sciences the project manager of the creation of the BEC-power station.
- Than idea BEC is attractive?
- In her realization there are no fundamental problems. The most parts necessary for creation experimental BEC, is already made. Producing of the thermonuclear explosions of the deuterium by capacity in tens of tons and even one kiloton we able do already for a long time. The problem of creation of ultrahigh temperatures and the pressure necessary for "controlled" explosions by power in tons of a trinitrotoluol equivalent, thus be obviated, because the burning deuterium we will initiate by small explosion of the charge consisting of uranium - 233. In a nature he does not meet; him receive from the thorium enough distributed in a nature. At the same time of the thorium and uranium for the explosive power is required in thousand times less, than for work of the usual atomic power station of the same power. Accordingly in hundreds times will decrease the quantity of radioactive waste products, and chemical pollution practically are absent.
- And nevertheless why you count, what (CNS) - the controlled thermonuclear synthesis it error?
- In bombs of performance of a condition of thermonuclear burning have reached for five years. It has caused, in my opinion, of the illusion, what the milligram deuterium can spark also simple as kilogram. "Photographing" of the ablaze thermonuclear reaction, we have understood, that it not so. On one of conferences in 2001 we have narrated about the unsuccessful attempts to light small quantities of a mix deuterium and tritium (we can inflamed of this mix much more simply, than pure deuterium), using

The russian magazine "the Science and life"   7, 2002

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So can be the image of the boiler of explosive combustion. The steel vessel (1) contains some tens thousand tons of the heat-carrier - liquid sodium (2). Nuclear device (3) assemble from separate components and omit at the chamber of the explode reactor by means of the channel of delivery (4). After nuclear explosion hot liquid sodium go in the heat exchanger (5) where he make water pairs with a high pressure. Pairs rotates the turbine (6), connected to the electric generator. For fission fragments (about one ton per year) is equipped the burial ground (7): "unburned" fuel (uranium, plutonium) and products of reaction (helium - 3, tritium) directed to processing.

for it the energy of nuclear explosion. Can be, somebody the some-time will do it, but all the same profitability micro-BEC, most likely is the fantasy. So practical progress in this area meanwhile is absent, anyway he be very slow, in order to replace of the terminating reserves of the petroleum and gas. - Experts on CNS, certainly, with you disagree? - One of "fathers" CNS - Andrey Dmitrievich Saharov in 1977 has published article "Nuclear power and freedom of the West", in which he appealed to the West with recommendation of return to practice of the thermonuclear explosions

"to not get in humiliating dependence on hydrocarbonic fuel of the USSR". Such position he proves by the slow progress at the area of CNS and at the area the power engineering of the breeder - based on work of reactors - multiplicator on fast neutrons.
- However in area of the breeder reactors we observes successes?
- Yes, the success were, but for their work first it is necessary to extract huge quantity of natural uranium and convertes into plutonium, next, gradually adding to plutonium of the uranium - 238 to receive self-replicating fuel. Uranus can be used for a long time because of small cumulative power of reactors. Authors of the concept have counted up, what by 2050 in the world will be possible to make 7 terawatt by means of a nuclear energy, at the same time is offered that 20 terawatt mankind need to receive from "the others sources".
From which, not quite clearly, but by then on the Earth, except of coal, practically nothing remain. The planet not can sustain of the such quantity of coal energy engineering, and complex forecasts speak, that thus even will be not possible to make the food for 10 billion people. In 1977 the group of scientists under the direction of academician Legasov has estimated necessary installed power per employee for 2050 in 20 kilowatt on the person - to the mankind to this moment can be demanded 200 terawatt.
- It turns out what to avoid power catastrophe for the mankind be possible only by transition on BEC?
- It is awful, but there is and the "alternative" way: fast reduce the population of a planet up to the "gold billion". Some of the critics of the project BEC speak, what the some politicians not ask of the "nor physicist, nor lyric poet"  can made it, and they can named it all as the "jump in stability". We not should hope and for slow reduction of quantity of the population, how foretell forecasts of the demographers. Manufacture of energy, apparently, should grow, and 200 terawatt can make only BEC! Other sources simply will not have time.
- But wherefore so to hasten? Some experts is of opinion, what the petroleum on XXI century will is enough, moreover introduction of new technologies at all will help to lowering of the energy expenses.
- Even for the "gold billion" of the petroleum on long time will not be enough. If this "billion"

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will start to live under present standards of USA, of the petroleum will need about 10 billion tone in year, or billion tones for XXI century. If the person will journey, fly and plough only by these standards, then for one century will necessary 400 billion tons. But, by different estimations, in the interior of the Earth remained from 120 up to 160 billion tons of petroleum. The any of forecasts speak, what the quantity of the oil will enough only for the modern population with "habits" USA. In any case for last 10 years consumption of petroleum steadily grew on 3-5 percents annually. Where economy from high technologies? The computer began to consume less, but the tractor pulling a plow, for a long time works near to a limit. Now of the petroleum in the world remained from 20 up to 30 tons on each earthman together with his descendants. When the Second world war began, her was 120 - 170 tons on the person. If the militarians will convince of the politicians, what the "minimal military reserve" be 5 tons on the person, then to plough the earth already there is nothing in 2015.
- You offer safe nuclear explosion. Even in Ministry of Atomic Energy in it not everyone trust: suddenly, what if explode in hundred first time?
- In the world for half-centuries were made a few tens thousand nuclear ammunition. The twice they purposely was exploded in Japan. Twice
"lose" the our competitors and even have once sprayed without nuclear explosion some kgs of plutonium above the Spanish tomatoes. "The Civilized mankind" does not recognize these incidents as "catastrophes of century". But such we all consideres the exceeding of allowable power of one from hundreds reactors for a few seconds. Experts know, that the exceeding of energy of explosion even on 10 percents - a rarity, but of opportunities for decrease - opposite be a lot. Safety factor in BEC is planned at 5-10 time. And if in customary a reactor is pawned the reserves of fuel, which is used some years, but in BEC - on half an hour. If fuel "well shuffle", then the deuterium will not blow up at all. For the specialists by reactor it not quite habitual situation. Besides in BEC a nuclear warhead will collect distantly directly in the explosive chamber from parts, which separately to nuclear explosion are not capable. The maximum, what can be bad, it is the explosion in absence of a sodium protective wall in the chamber. Then the internal steel environment will be damaged, the boiler appears unsuitable to the further operation, but of the leakage of radioactive materials will not be.
- But how to be with pact about of the non-proliferation? And the terrorism, however, grow stronger?
- The divisible material used in BEC, can not be accumulated by terrorists, nor the lone person, nor the state. If using him right after separation the personnel works without fears. But after one month the terrorist, which collecting from

him of a bomb, is doomed on death. The steal of a ready warhead too is useless: in an hour after assemblage and refuelling it the nuclear device loses ability to blow up. It have simple explanation. Uranus in a device irradiate by the fast neutrons. Thus what the neutron which has punch in a nucleus of uranium - 233, with some probability knock out from him two, forming a nucleus of uranium - 232. Uranus - 232 has a half-life period of 70 years, therefore radio-activity of him is high. Besides from neutron radiation of uranium it is easy to be protected: neutrons can be vastly absorbed in water. But in products of a chain of transformations of uranium - 232 there is a thallium - 208, which is letting out rigid gamma rays with energy 2,7 MeV. And if "fuel" of a nuclear device at the first o'clock does not represent danger because in him still there is no thallium, but after one week with him it is better to operate only with the help of robots. The active stuffing of a device, produced for BEC, will be extremely dangerous to the person after one month after manufacturing. Gradually speed of an lifelength of thallium grows, and after some hours the material "unmasks" itself, later 24 hours he creates problems with observance of norms of radiating safety, later one week he becomes dangerous, and later the one month - is fatal to the collector of a device and even for "the ammunition carrier". Thus, "we not can have envy to the terrorist" - has told Andrey Dmitrievich Saharov still a quarter of century back concerning the installation similar with BEC, in already mentioned article.
- But nor it will turn out how has written the "Russian newspaper": "Direct use in BEC of the military technologies will result so, that the third countries will receive the nuclear and thermonuclear weapon the ready for use..."
- And
"...The non-proliferation treaty becomes concept more than conditional.., if not do removed military technologies from the peace uses, then any the special services will not safeguarded so dangerous information from leak". But after all we offer to build BEC only in Russia, and the our militarians will do exploding of the nuclear device, earlier they already "make controlling by the nuclear button": safety from it only will win. They know how to not allow "outflow of information". Test of professionalism Russian of the militarians has passed successfully. Upholders of "non-distribution" should be afraid, in my opinion, of another. Suppose, what suddenly the researchers however can "inflame" of the CNS? Then will appear the experts, which will be "more clever than now", they will make bombs "not worse than existent" from the anyone nuclear fuel, moreover experts will teach this craft of the "stokers" from the little "boiler-houses", using CNS. For replacement of the power engineering of Russia on CNS of the "stokers" is required not less half a million, for replacement on BEC - not more three thousand. The terrorist, which want reaching of the own purpose, with a high probability can find the more simple variant. In New York denuclear act of terrorism in September, which was "summoned" by a knife, had the quantity of the dead mans, which be comparable with nuclear in Nagasaki...

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- You assert, that Russia should become fatherland for BEC: fuel for him is required a little, chemical pollution are absent, and radioactive waste products is formed much less, than at burning coal?
- Yes, nor the coal, nor the breeder reactors the such opportunity not have, even if
"the end of petroleum" will come only in 2050. At transition from hydrocarbonic fuel both to BEC, and on coal, and on the atomic power station there is one a same problem: before than we will use of the energy of the powerplant, it is necessary to enclose significant financial resources. At construction of the BEC are expenses for a construction of the chamber, which can sustain the nuclear explosions. In a case of the breeder reactors - for getting of plutonium. At transition to coal - on a construction of mines, railways, freight cars, boilers etc. That is, if to replace petroleum with coal, the energy spent for development of the coal industry, will be returned only by 2040. The breeder reactors can compensate expenses on 10-15 years later. At BEC it will chanced are by 2025, but with each year the reserve of the time diminish.
- What is required else?
- Only the political decision of the top management of the country to construct of the prototype BEC. Since the boiler of explosive combustion falls under action of the pact about general prohibition of nuclear tests. The pact allow to their peace use (China in due time has insisted to it), but the such tests stipulates the procedures,

which prohibit informing potential investors concerning date of creation BEC. This document imply, that the state, which have of the wish to do of the appropriate nuclear tests, should prove their peace character.
"The Russian explosive deuterium power engineering have a lot of advantages. It is one of the few of "high technologies", appropriate to our development to true needs of mankind", - is convinced the project manager Gennady Alekseevich Ivanov. And the more of parts of this device we already made - the source of the deuterium energy is created. In opinion of developers, it is time to design and construct the experimental boiler of explosive combustion to check up on him correctness of all technical decisions and then within several years will make commercially favourable energy. The minimal energy of explosion in the boiler, most likely, will make 1-2 kiloton in a trotyl equivalent. Cost will be from 100 up to 600 million dollars depending on a share of the made electric power, service life, safety factor etc. Construction of the boiler for the heat supply to the Chelyabinsk and Ekaterinburg (by 1,5-2,0 gigawatt heat for each city), in opinion of scientists, will cost no expensively, not more 300 million dollars - "ridiculous money" in scales of the country.

(Snezhinsk - Moscow ).

My note:
Really, it "very ridiculous money"! It is possible to think, that each person have in a pocket this "small coins".

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The russian magazine "the Science and life"  7, 2002

(Translation into the English language has executed A.J. Streltsov.)

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