Below be the article: "The experimental detection of neutrons at shock compression of the deuterium bubble in a viscous liquid". I made her of a copy from the INTERNET. The authors of article allege, that their article is published in magazine "Applied physics"  4 for 2006.
I do of the comments on this work after article.

UDC 621

The experimental detection of neutrons at shock compression
of the deuterium bubble in a viscous liquid


The authors: Smorodov E.A., Galiahmetov R.N.
(Translation into the English language has executed A.J. Streltsov.)


Here is considered the fundamental opportunity of creation of the deuterium plasmas of high density in the compressed gas bubble in a viscous liquid. Is experimentally revealed the opportunity of the formation of neutrons at compression of the single spherical deuterium bubble in the glycerin at piston shock influence on a liquid. Ways of improvement of experimental installation for increase of the energy efficiency are offered.


In last years has appeared the big set of conjectures and speculation concerning found out in 2002 of the phenomenon of getting of neutrons at the acoustic cavitation in the deuterate acetone, which be described in work [1], and then, with some changes in an experimental part, in articles [2,3].

In view of extreme importance of a problem of controlled nuclear synthesis, to which is directly connected a found phenomenon, the authors have decided to repeat of experiment [1] in the changed variant for excluding double interpretation of results.

In the beginning we briefly shall set out the essence of the experiments, carried out in work [1].

Installation consist of a cylindrical glass vessel with the deuteration acetone (C3D6O), on which on external perimeter be situated the ring acoustic oscillator. The sizes of a vessel choose so, that at the resonant frequency of the oscillator 19 kHz in the centre of the cylinder was formed the wave antinode of the acoustic pressure that provided conditions for occurrence of the acoustic cavitation.

The most interesting (and be causing the greatest objections at interpretation of results) is the way of getting of the centers cavitation, be proposed by authors [1]. These authors used a impulsive neutrons source with energy 14 MeV, they traverses liquid and did forming of the trace from micro-bubbles of steam the working liquid, which will by starting embryos of the cavitation. After the termination of an initial neutron pulse the researchers registered the secondary neutrons with energy near 2,5 MeV which, by hypothesis of the authors, be result of reactions of nuclear synthesis between nucleus of the heavy hydrogen inside bubble at his fast compression in an acoustic field and occurrence in bubbles of high temperatures.

The basic objection of an opponents of their work is that the discovered secondary neutrons be not result of reaction of nuclear synthesis, but is primary 14 MeV the neutrons which have slowed down in a liquid up to energy 2,5 MeV.

In later work of the same authors [3] external sources of neutrons was not used. In these experiments they used the salts of a radioactive isotope of uranium which gave a weak stream of α-radiation which created of the germs cavitation. Instead of acetone the authors used benzene and his mixes with organic solvents. Nevertheless, the opportunity of initiation of thermonuclear reaction in the cavitation bubbles be not absolute proved. First of all the reason of thereof consists in rather weak stream of the discovered neutrons, which be only a little more on a background of used elementary particles and natural radiation. Probably also occurrence of neutrons from an induced radiation of elements of installation or environmental subjects.

Therefore in given article we do of attempt to carry out experiment with no use of primary neutrons (and any another) a source of elementary particles. In this case each of the neutrons registered in installation, can be only a product of nuclear reactions.

First of all we shall notice, that the necessity of use of an initial neutron source, under the statement of authors of discussed article, it is caused by what the neutron beam allows to receive germs cavitation with initial radius and the gas content, "optimal" from the point of view of achievement of the maximal thermodynamic parameters of gas at his compression. Nevertheless, is obvious, that the "optimum" initial radius depends on set of parameters, for example, from the frequencies and amplitudes of an acoustic field, from the structure of gas in the bubble, from the properties of a working liquid, from of preservation of the spherical form of bubble at compression and so forth.

Therefore is necessary at least be of the qualitative assessment to analyse influence of each of the listed parameters and to define their "optimum" combination so that compression of the gas bubble in these conditions resulted in the maximal probability of initiation of nuclear reaction.


1. The analysis of conditions for initiation of reactions of nuclear synthesis in gas bubble.


The probability of reaction of synthesis depends on size of the energy barrier of the reaction, which be determined by the nuclear cross-section of interaction, and hence from density of plasma, her structure, temperature and time her of existence. Quantitatively positive the energy efficiency of reaction of nuclear synthesis is determined by a Lawson criterion, namely, as multiplication of concentration of particles n on the period of existence of confinement of the plasma. For reaction D-D this size is n τ > 10 22 m -3 s, and for D-T reactions n τ > 10 20 m -3 s.

At a impulse of compressing pressure P(t), which is close to rectangular (i.e. P(t) = Pm=const), the energy of external forces, transmitted to gas at the bubble in an ideal liquid can be accepted equal E = Pm ΔV, where ΔV - change of volume of the bubble. If we will assumed, that the amplitude of fluctuations is great, i.e. R0 > > Rmin then we can write down


Where R0 - equilibrium radius of the gas bubble;

Pm - amplitude of pressure in a liquid at blow.

The thermal capacity of gas in the bubble at the established the equilibrium pressure also is proportional to the initial volume of bubble, therefore the density of energy (or temperatures), reserved in bubble, in the accepted conditions does not depend on his initial radius. In other words, the temperature and density of gas in the adiabatic case does not depend on initial radius bubble, and depends only on size of the enclosed pressure.

Otherwise will is the situation with the second multiplier in the Lawson criterion, i.e. with the time of a final stage of compression of bubble τ. As a case of the quantitative estimation τ it is possible to take, for example, of a width of the half-height of the impulse of temperature arising at a pulsation of the bubble. It is possible to show, what the time of a final stage of compression of a gas bubble will proportional to time of the full collapse of the vacuum bubble with the same radius and it is determined by the formula Rayleigh:



Where R0 - radius with which begins the compression of the bubble;

ρL - density of a liquid;

P - compression pressure in a liquid.

This implies, what the value of the Lawson criterion for the plasma in bubble n τ  ~ R0, i.e. initiation of the reaction of nuclear synthesis most probably for bubble with the greatest initial radius.

The heat transmission in gas is determined by processes of transfer of a impulse and consequently speed of cooling of the central areas bubble is inversely to a square of his radius. Therefore it is necessary to expect, that at the equal attitude of the maximal and minimal radius at compression of the bubble (taking into account of heat exchange) the temperature of gas in big bubble (BB) will be higher, than in small. The initial radius influences also an opportunity of formation of a shock wave in gas if will exists the mechanism of heating of the central area of bubble by the converging shock waves [4].
The estimations made above, certainly, have the rather approached character. Nevertheless, it is possible to expect, that the probability of achievement of conditions for initiation of nuclear reactions at compression of a big gas bubble (BB) is higher, than for microscopic.

Use of BB as the concentrator of energy for initiation of nuclear reaction in the technical plan is complicated by two major factors.

1. Complexity of the message of sufficient energy to BB. From the calculations follows, what efficiently accumulate potential energy and to give of her to a gas how a heat are capable only the bubbles with the certain initial (equilibrium) radius, which approximately can be calculated by means of formula Minaert's.



At use of acoustic oscillators the equilibrium radius of bubble is limited to low efficiency of oscillators on frequencies below 5-10 kHz. Increase of efficiency of oscillators on lower frequencies would demand substantial growth of their geometrical sizes. For example, for the BB with the radius 1 sm the calculations by means of the formula (3) gives resonant frequency 320 Hz, thus the length of the resonant magnetostriction oscillator for excitation of fluctuations BB should be about 10 meters.

2. Complexity of preservation of spherical form BB. Efficiency of concentration of energy may is reached only in case of preservation of spherical form BB down to achievement by him of the minimal radius. The spherical form is provided with forces of a superficial tension of a liquid, electric forces of the charged surface bubble, and also, by the data [5], by the forces of viscosity. The sphere aspire to the collapse under the influence of the currents, which disturb of the spherical symmetry, for example, because near be others bubbles or a wall of a vessel, and also is possible development of a various sort dynamic instabilities.

Hence, it is possible to suppose, that for achievement of the conditions, necessary for initiation of nuclear reactions of synthesis, will necessary the implementation of the following conditions:

  1. The equilibrium radius of bubble should be big enough (up to 1-10 mm).

  2. The liquid should have high coefficients of a superficial tension and viscosity.

  3. The bubble should be single, i.e. should be satisfied the condition R0 << L, where L - distance from the centre of bubble up to any other inclusion (another bubble, a wall of a vessel, a surface of a liquid etc.).

As the experimental acknowledgement of the two last items it is possible to name work [5], where is experimentally shown, that the greatest intensity has sonoluminescence (SL) in viscous liquids with a high superficial tension (glycerin, ethylene glycol), and also works by "mono-bubble" SL, including and a sulfuric acid [6].

Special interest represents a question about how we can impart of the sufficient energy of the BB. How it already was marked, the acoustic methods for this purpose bad match, at least, at use of acoustic oscillators existing now. Besides, repeated pulsations of the big bubble ultimately can result in loss of the spherical form and to his splitting, then the further pumping of energy becomes impossible.

Therefore in our experiments was used the single high-intensity compression of the BB with use of shock influence on a working liquid.

It is simple to calculate, what for getting of the completely ionized D-fusion plasma in the BB with radius 5 mm (under normal conditions) it is necessary to spend energy near 30 joule. In the elementary case, at use of the shock compression of the BB by a falling cargo, such energy can is transmitted to the system at falling a cargo of the weight of 3 kg from a height in 1 m. Thus, is obvious, that for realization of experiment is not required use of the materials with unique properties, however it is necessary to elaborate the circuit of the installation transmitting energy of impact to the bubble without infringement of his spherical form and with observance of all conditions, listed above.


2. Numerical estimations of parameters of the device of the shock compression


Let's do of the numerical estimations of dynamics of the bubble at shock loading. As we shall estimate the general character of movement of bubble, instead of thermodynamic parameters of gas in a final stage of compression, then how a basis of mathematical model we shall take elementary equation of Nolting-Neppiras for an incompressible liquid without taking into account heat exchange and we shall replace in it equation of the sine wave upon pressure growing under the law, which be characteristic for shock loading:



Where Pm - the maximal pressure, Pa;

τ - the parameter, determining speed of increase of pressure at blow, s.

The equation of movement will be written down in this case as follows:


at initial conditions:



where R - the current radius of bubble, m,

P- static pressure in a liquid, Pa,

P(t) - pressure, created by the external device (for example, by the percussive device), Pa,

P0 - starting pressure in bubble at R = R0, Pa,

Ps - pressure of the saturated vapor of liquid, Pa,

ρ - density of a liquid, kg/m 3,

μ - coefficient of dynamic viscosity of a liquid, Pa s,

σ - coefficient of a surface tension of a liquid, N/m,

γ - ratio of specific heats.

Numerical decisions of the equation for various initial radiuses of the gas bubble in glycerin are given on a drawing 1. How follows from the calculations, for bubbles, with small equilibrium radius, the speed of increase of pressure at blow loading can be insufficient for effective transfer of energy to gas in bubble. Energy of blow in this case is spent on heating of a liquid at fading pulsations of bubble in a viscous liquid.

The experimental detection of neutrons at shock compression of the deuterium bubble in a viscous liquid

The drawing   1. Numerical decisions of the equation of pulsations of the bubbles
in glycerin (
μ = 1 Pa s) at percussive compression.

1 - Pressure P(t) = Pm   (1-exp(-t/τ)) at Pm = 10 MPa, τ = 2 10 -5 s

2 - Change of the relative radius at R0 = 3 mm

3 - Change of the relative radius at R0 = 0,5 mm


At the big equilibrium radiuses of the bubble the pressure has time to increasing up to the maximal value up to the moment of achievement by the bubble of the minimal size, that be conductive for high efficiency of transfer of energy.

Duration of front of a impulse of pressure can be estimated, if we know the characteristic sizes of a vessel with liquid L and speed of a sound in a liquid c: τ ≈ L/c. For example, for a vessel with characteristic size L = 5 sm and the filled by a glycerin (c =1900 m/s) value
τ = 0,05/1900 = 2,63 10 -5 s.


3. The experimental installation


For the experimental check of a hypothesis about an opportunity of start of reaction of the nuclear synthesis at the shock compression of the big deuterium bubble was developed the installation, the circuit which is given on a drawing 2.

The experimental detection of neutrons at shock compression of the deuterium bubble in a viscous liquid


Drawing 2. The circuit of installation of blow compression of the gas bubble.


Installation represents the massive thick-walled steel cylinder (1) with densely matched in him by piston (2) which be made from the easy aluminium alloy. In the cylinder is situated the liquid - glycerin (C3H8O3). The choice of glycerin is caused by the following reasons. Firstly, intensity of the sonoluminescence in glycerin the greatest, from all investigated liquids [5,8] and taking into account, that the brightness of flash sonoluminescence is considered as the indicator of thermodynamic parameters of plasma in bubble then and the conditions for reaction of nuclear synthesis in these conditions be optimum. Second, the glycerin be the high-viscosity liquid (tab. 1), what solves of the problem of impermeability between the cylinder and the piston of installation, and also allows to slow down process of emersion big bubble, for which the speed of float can is calculated by means of the Stokes formula.


where ρ0 and ρ' - density of a liquid and gas accordingly;

μ - dynamic viscosity of liquid (list 1);

R0 - radius of bubble.

List 1

Dependence of viscosity of glycerin and water with temperature  

Temperature, oC Dynamic viscosity
of glycerin,
Dynamic viscosity
of water,
0 12100 1,792
5 7050 1,219
10 3950 1,308
15 2350 1,140
20 1480 1,005
30 600 0,8007
100 13 0,2838
160 1 -

From the other physical properties of glycerin, which do influencing on dynamics of the gas bubble, we shall note factor of a superficial tension σ = 63 mN/m (at 20 oC) and on very low pressure of the saturated vapors Ps = 0,133 kPa (at 125 oC). (For mercury Ps=171 kPa at 20 oC).

It is simple to calculate, what at temperature +5oC and initial radius bubble R0 = 3 speed of surfacing of bubble in glycerin will about 5,3 mm/s, so at height of the cylinder of 10 sm the supervision of the surfacing bubble can be carried out during of the tens seconds. Viscosity can is the enough simple regulated in a wide range, by way of changing temperature of a liquid.

Thirdly, speed of a sound in glycerin c =1900 m/s (in water about 1500 m/s), what do approximation of the system of the liquid - bubble to model of the incompressible liquid and thus the probability of destruction of the bubble by a shock wave at blow of the piston about a liquid will be reduced. It is important also, what the pressure of the saturated vapor of glycerin in conditions of experiment is a insignificant, and influence of the vapor of working liquid can be neglected.

The bubble of the deuterium (5) was entered with the help of a syringe (4), through an inlet in bottom of the cylinder. The initial radius of the bubble was determined by volume of the injected gas and could be set from 3 up to 8 mm.

Rather responsible element of experimental installation is the detector of neutrons (3). He is made from the five helium detectors CHM - 56, with the general active area of 150 sm2, that be, if to take into account the geometry of installation, 0,059 from the full spatial angle. Work of the detector is based on reaction of neutrons with gas the helium-3, which is in the chamber: n + 3He = p + T + 764 keV.

At the given detectors due to high absorption section of reaction 3He(n, p)T, which for thermal neutrons are 5 10 -21 sm2, we can reached practically the marginal efficiency of registration of neutrons.

Characteristics of the detector are given in list   2.


List   2

Characteristics of the neutron counter CHM-56

Diameter 18 mm
Length of a working part 150 mm
Mode of operation As proportional
Pressure 3He 0,7 MPa
Own radioactivity background, no more than 10-3 s-1
Resistance of isolation, not less 1011 ohm
Working voltage 1200 volt
Efficiency of registration of thermal neutrons, not less 0,7
Time of gathering of a charge 10-6 s


The electron circuit of registration worked in a regime of the account of neutrons with their accumulation during the given time interval. In our case the time of accumulation 1 second. Such time was chosen in view of complexity of synchronization of the mechanical blow device and the electronic circuit.

The principle of work of the circuit is explained on a drawing 2.

The experimental detection of neutrons at shock compression of the deuterium bubble in a viscous liquid


The drawing 2. A principle of work of the electronic circuit of the account of neutrons. U - a signal on an exit of the entrance amplifier, U0 - a threshold level for a elimination of the noise signal (90 mvolt). N - number of the neutrons which fly out for one second.


At a continuous irradiation by the weak stream of neutrons (in an example on a drawing 2 - 5 s-1) on an exit of the amplifier of a electric charge we observed a picture, shown on the top drawing. After a silencing of a background signal (a dash line) the wanted signal go in the accumulator, which works, as shown on the lower drawing. Levels of a voltage have identical height. After end of a cycle of the account the level of the account is reset in a zero, and the new cycle begins.

Registration of the neutrons, formed at the collapse of the gas bubble, demands enough the high speed as the neutron gas detector so and of the electronic circuit. If to assume, that the temporary parameters of a neutron impulse are near to parameters of flash of the sonoluminescence (10-10 s, [9]), then the direct account of neutrons in a impulse is impossible, because the time of accumulation of a electric charge by the detector considerably exceeds this size (10-6 s). Therefore it is necessary to expand a neutron impulse in time. It is made with the help of delay of neutrons in hydric medium. Thus we also reached of the second purpose - decreasing of energy of neutrons to a level thermal, which be most effectively registered by the helium detector. Use of special moderators as layers or mediums of polymers is undesirable, because it results in removal of the detector from area of generating of neutrons, and thus the solid angle of the registration will decreased. Therefore as the slowing down environment was used the glycerin, i.e. the own a working medium.

Numerical estimations have shown, that for deceleration of neutrons with energy 2,5 MeV up to 0,5 eV in glycerin is required about 25 collisions of a neutron with nucleus of hydrogen, what corresponds to root-mean-square removal from a point of his birth on 12 sm and time of delay near 3
10-6 s. Therefore taking into account of the linear sizes of the  cylinder with the glycerin (the drawing 1), it is possible to expect, that the basic stream of neutrons will be slowed down directly in the working liquid without use of the additional moderator, and duration of a neutron impulse will be of the increase to a several micro seconds. Thus, the temporary and energy parameters of a neutron impulse become sufficient for registration by the gas-filled detectors such as CHM-56.

With taking into account of the geometrical sizes of installation (see the drawing 1) the estimation of parameters of sensitivity gives the following characteristics:

  1. To the active surface of the detector of neutrons gets 0,059 from all neutrons, which flying out from the device.

  2. Time of delay of neutrons (i.e. time their the flying from the installation after of the collapse of bubble) 1 ... 3 microseconds. Up to thermal energy are slowed down approximately half from full number of arising neutrons.

  3. Probability of capture of a thermal neutron by the detector - 0,7.

Thus, we can approximately count, what at nuclear reaction the detector will registered one neutron from 50.


4. Realization of experiment and the received results.


At the first stage of experiments in the cylinder of the installation intentionally were not established detectors of devices (of the measurement of a impulse of pressure, of the intensity of light flash and so forth). It is caused by the necessity of ensuring of the maximal rigidity of a structure of a reactor and symmetry of streams of a liquid for preservation of the spherical form of the gas bubble.

The glycerin before we made the experiment was degassed with help of the heating to temperature +150
oC, and then be cooled up to +5 oC for assignment of necessary viscosity.

The deuterium we received at chemical reaction of heavy water with lithium.

The energy of the blow was adjusted by change of weight and height of falling of a cargo on the piston of installation and made 5 ... 500 joule. After a gulf of glycerin and installation of the piston was included the electronic circuit which worked within 30 minutes for elimination of the drift voltage and the control of a natural background. The background of neutron radiation in conditions of realization of experiments be from 1 to 5 neutrons one minute.

After was made the control blow (without bubble) with the maximal energy with the purpose of check of influence of vibration of installation on the work of the detector of neutrons. In all cases similar influence was absent.

Then into installation it was entered the bubble of air in size 0,1 ... 2 ml and we made the blow with the maximal energy. The moment of blow of the piston about a liquid necessary calculate so, so as the floatable bubble was on half of height of the cylinder, what provided the maximal symmetry of a stream of a liquid. In these experiments the neutrons were not registered.

On the last stage was entered the bubble with deuterium. During experiments we also changed of the volume of bubble from 0,1 up to 2 ml (that be as changes of radius from 2,88 to 7,82 mm).

We draw attention of reader, what at simultaneous existence of the three varied parameters (the initial radius of bubble and energy of blow which can be adjusted by a mass of a cargo or his final speed) for reliable statistics be necessary rather big number of experiments. Therefore in the beginning we made of the estimated experiences, so for the gas bubble was found the optimal initial radius, at which the collapse of bubble give of the most reproduced results.

It was established, what at temperature of glycerin +5 oC the greatest reproducibility of results takes place for bubble with the initial radius 3 ... 5 mm. Presumably, it is connected to stability of the spherical form of the bubble. At the big radiuses quadratically grows the speed of emersion of the bubble with drop-shaped distortion of the form. At smaller initial radiuses of bubble starts to have an effect of the insufficient speed of increase of pressure which is required for effective accumulation of kinetic energy. Used in experiments the mechanical device of blow did not allow to create speed of falling of a cargo the big 10 m/s at his mass of 10 kg. (The full mass of installation mainly are determined by mass of the steel cylinder and amount 110 kg).

At the specified radiuses of distortion of the spherical form of bubble visually were not observed, and speed of his emersion be 3-6 mm/s.

Results of a series of experiments with initial radius of bubble R0 = 3 mm are submitted in list   3.

For every of the value of the energy of the blow in an interval 10 ... 500 joule we made a 10 experiments, at which was registrated of the meterages of the detector of neutrons directly after blow.

For acknowledgement, what the results of experiments can not be consequence of the background radiation or other random factors, we carried out the check experiments. In the control experiments all conditions were kept, only instead of the deuterium in the bubble be contained air.

list 3

The results of a series of experiments with various energy of the blow (deuterium, R0 = 3 mm)

Number of experience The account of impulses N
at energy of blow, joule
  10 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500
1 0 1 2 2 7 2 5 6 3 9 0
2 0 2 2 0 6 6 9 8 8 8 2
3 1 1 1 5 6 7 1 9 6 9 15
4 0 2 1 5 4 2 3 6 0 7 11
5 1 0 1 4 6 5 5 9 7 6 0
6 1 0 1 3 5 1 6 2 3 9 2
7 0 2 3 4 2 4 3 7 10 10 7
8 1 1 1 4 2 9 5 5 4 7 5
9 0 2 1 4 5 3 5 4 6 16 8
10 0 2 1 1 2 5 11 1 8 9 2
Arithmetic mean 0,4 1,3 1,4 3,2 4,5 4,4 5,3 5,7 5,5 9 5,2
Dispersion 0,27 0,68 0,49 2,84 3,61 6,26 8,45 7,56 8,94 7,55 25,06

At these experiments the neutrons were not registered, except for several cases, in which, apparently, was registered the background neutron radiation or an own background of the sensor. The residual radiation in conditions of realization of experiments be 1 ... 5 min-1. At an interval of account in one second the probability of registration of a background neutron be no more than 0.08, therefore from 459 neutrons registered in a series of measurements of tab. 1 (the general time of measurements is 110 s), then only 110 0,08 = 9 neutrons can be as background radiation. Thus, it is possible to assert, what the results of experiments, firstly, are unequivocally connected to presence of the deuterium in bubbles, and, secondly, theirs can not be explained by residual radiation.

The analysis given from the table   3 showed, that the neutron yield in similar experiments be enough difficult related with energy of blow. The average of neutrons in one impulse with increase of energy of blow was increased, but grows also and his the dispersion, what denote significant decrease of reproducibility of experiences. Apparently, it is connected to complexity of creation of identity of conditions of realization of experiment, such as position of the bubble in the moment of the blow, distortion of his form etc. Besides after every realization of experiment it was necessary to replace a working liquid, because formed after experiment the gas pillow hinder for the effective pass of energy to the next bubble at recurrence of experiment. Replacement of a liquid also does not be conductive to preservation of identity of conditions of experiments. In some cases we can was visually observing the smashing of bubble on the multitude of the small bubbles, which were in a liquid how a foggy cloud (high viscosity of liquid did not allow them float up to the surface. In such cases the ejection of an neutrons was not fixed.

Let's notice one more interesting circumstance. From the list   3 follows, what at energy of blow in 10 ... 50 joule we watch of the appreciable excess of neutrons yield by comparison with a background. At the same time, how it is possible to show by the elementary calculation, this energy has not enough not only for the adiabatic heating of gas to thermonuclear temperatures, but even and for full ionization of gas. Apparently, this fact can be as acknowledgement of a hypothesis of the formation of a converging spherical shock wave in the gas, which did transfered of the energy only to small central area of the gas bubble.

For elucidation of the physical mechanism of procreation of neutrons in the carried out experiments will necessary do the further researches. Is rather probably, what the mechanism of reaction of nuclear synthesis in conditions of the strong nonequilibrium of plasma in a shock wave be so, how it is offered by authors of work [10].


4. Conclusion.

Despite of limiting of the simple experimental installation it is possible to count reliably established the fact of generation of neutrons at compression of the deuterium bubble in glycerin, what can be consequence of initiation of reaction of nuclear synthesis in the D-fusion plasma.

For the further research of the physical mechanism of processes in the compressed gas bubble be necessary the continuation of experiments with more complex installation with realization of measurement of pressure in a liquid, with the control of the form and of the radius of bubble in process development, with control of the energy and of spectral structure of light flash.

Prospective ways of improvement of experimental installation the following:

  1. Realization of experiment with liquid metals, in which speed of a sound is much more, than in a simple liquid.

  2. Use of energy of the electrohydraulic shock or micro-explosion.

  3. Realization of experiments with use of the resonant loading of the energy on a low frequencies of fluctuations of pressure in a piston regime.

  4. Decrease of a power threshold of reaction with use of tritium.

Authors express gratitude to employees of State Unitary Enterprise of "Geophysics" Ahmedshin A.M. and Efimov S.S. from development of the electronic circuit and the software for the counter of neutrons.


The literature::

  1. Taleyarkhan R. P., West C.D., Lohey R.T., Nigmatulin R.I., Block R.C. Evidence for nuclear emissions during acoustic cavitation, Science 295, pp.18681873 (2002).

  2. Nigmatulin R.I., Akhatov I.Sh., Topolnikov A.S. et al. - Theory of supercompression of vapor bubbles and nanoscale thermonuclear fusion //Physics of Fluids. - 17, 107106 (2005)

  3. Taleyarkhan R. P., West C.D., Lohey R.T., Nigmatulin R.I., Block R.C., Y.Xu. Nuclear Emissions During Self-Nucleated Acoustic Cavitation. Pys. Rev. Lett. 96, 034301 (2006)

  4. Aganin A.A., Ilgamov M.A. Numerical modelling of dynamics of gas in the bubble at the collaps with formation of shock waves // The applied Mechanics Technical Physics., 1999, V.40   2. pp 101-110.

  5. Smorodov E.A. The experimental researches of the cavitation in viscous liquids. The dissertation of the candidate of physical and mathematical sciences. Moscow, Acoustic institute of the Academy of sciences of name Andreyev's, 1987.

  6. Flannigan D. J., Suslick K.S.. Molecular and atomic emission during single-bubble cavitation in concentrated sulfuric acid //Acoustics Research Letters Online, 2005 - Volume 6, Issue 3, pp. 157-161

  7. Gaitan D.F., Crum C.C., Churh C.C., Roy R.A. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 91. 3166 (1992)

  8. Margulis M.A. Sound-chemical of reaction and sonoluminescence, Moscow: Chemistry, 1986.-288 pages.

  9. R.A. Hiller, S. J. Putterman, K.R. Weninger. Time-Resolved Spectra of Sonoluminescence.// Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, pp.10901093 (1998)

  10. Velikodnyj V.J., Bitjurin V.A.. About an opportunity of thermonuclear synthesis in the leading edge of a shock wave // Applied physics, 2001   3, pp 12-19


Mu comments to article of Smorodov's and Galiahmetov's.

In this case this work can be interesting to us because her authors once again, and recently have experimentally proved of the opportunity of existence of reactions of nuclear synthesis in the cavitational processes. The previous attempts of other researchers (group Talejarhan, Nigmatulin etc.) were or are insufficiently convincing, or are "accidentally" forgotten (experiences of Flynn's). Unfortunately, in relation to the cavitational synthesis in scientific press is observed the absurd situation: in the beginning is published of the scientific work of rather disputable contents.
Next do the general criticism of work and due to it she receives wide popularity (scandal is too be the advertising), but the scientific line of investigation, which was considered in this work, we can declare as unpromising. At the same time the properly strong works (to them I attribute and of the work of Smorodov and Galiahmetov) because of indisputability of the received results nobody does not criticize - opponents do not hasten to do to this work of advertising. And, as consequence, this work in scientific community does not receive the deserved publicity and will be unknown. There is a danger, that this work will be forgotten too. But we shall hope, that now it not happen.
Most comically, what even supporters of traditional methods of the decision of problems CNS are already compelled, in the veiled form to recognize of the cavitational synthesis, and even apply some ideas of the cavitational synthesis. You can looked, for example, of the review of academician Velihov by a problem CNS, in which he describes of the coreless deuterium-tritium capsules - targets for installations of laser synthesis. Really collaps of the such coreless the capsule - target is not reminded to you of a collapse of the gas bubble in the cavitational phenomenon? Difference only so, that the supporters of laser synthesis want do of the collapse of a cavity with the help of bulky ineffective laser installations. In opinion of the supporters of laser synthesis, we of certainly here need use of laser installations, and as only we one can without them!
Thus the our the academicians - nuclear engineering about an opportunity cavitational nuclear synthesis do not stammer at all - probably, that for them a collocation
"the cavitational nuclear synthesis" summon of a demon from hell, and they are afraid to say him or to write. However, of the our academicians - nuclear engineering we humanly too must understood: if cavitational nuclear synthesis suddenly the is carried out! Then problem CNS will be solved without bulky complex and expensive TOKAMAK's, laser installations, huge explosive reactors. Where then all our academicians - nuclear engineering after that will receive the salary?! Therefore they and be so taciturn about the cavitational synthesis "as guerrillas on interrogation".

I shall make some critical remarks to article of Smorodov's and Galiahmetov's.

It is necessary to notice, what in the preliminary mathematical constructions the authors proceed from the assumption that collapse of the gas bubble in their installation occurs spherically symmetrically. Actually in their experiments this condition is carried out badly, in reality the authors of work as a matter of fact "beat by the hammer on the gas bubble" - the shock wave of the increased pressure is approached to the deuterium bubble with one side, next, certainly, she can flow round him, causing for him more-less spherical collapse. But be impossible to speak about absolutely spherically symmetric collapse of bubble.
Besides, in work completely there is no focussing of energy of blow on the bubble. Also it is necessary to take into account, that the forward front of a shock wave of the increased pressure can not be too abrupt (otherwise he deforms of bubble), and, hence, the collapse of the bubble is carried out not by kinetic energy of forward front of a shock wave, but from potential energy of compression of molecules of a liquid, which arises behind of forward front. If we simplify to a limit the model (we will neglect by the transients, authors of article, by the way, did analogously, you can see their formula   4) then it is possible to speak, what the energy of blow of a weight proceed at the potential energy of compression of a liquid. This potential energy of compression of a liquid arises after the shock front of a running wave, caused by the falling of a weight and she be distributed (be smeared) in big volume of a liquid, after of front of a shock wave. (Below submitted the images, which, according to the model chosen authors, consistently shows how the kinetic energy of impact gradually "spreads" on all volume of a vessel as potential energy of interaction of molecules of a liquid. The intensity of darkening characterizes density, pressure, liquids: 1 figure - before shock, 2 - direct after shock, 3 and 4 - after some time intervals.)

The experimental detection of neutrons at shock compression of the deuterium bubble in a viscous liquid

Therefore on the share of a collapse of a gas bubble will only insignificant part of energy of falling of a cargo - only such quantity of potential energy of interaction of molecules which be in nearby layers of a liquid. Paradox: authors of the article have increased the size of a vessel with glycerin to avoid influence of walls on the spherical form of bubble, but in consequence they have involuntarily reduced energy which carries out a collapse bubble. I not shall begin to prove here it in detail, but it so - energy, which do the collapse of gas bubble, depends on geometry of a vessel, at least from diameter of the piston.
Accordingly, taking into account all that was here aforesaid, we cannot speak about an opportunity of achievement of the Lawson criterion, is good already that authors could receive neutrons and by that they prove an opportunity of nuclear reactions in the cavitational process.

Nevertheless, in spite of all critical remarks stated by me, work of the Smorodov's and Galiahmetov's has very big value for two reasons:

1. she undoubtedly proves an opportunity of reactions of nuclear synthesis in the cavitational processes;
2. she is "fresh", and not yet had time for the transforming into a half-forgotten legend, as works of Flynn's.

Therefore we can hope, that modern internet-technologies will not allow supporters of traditional ways of the decision of a problem of controlled nuclear synthesis (to supporters TOKAMAK's, laser synthesis etc.) to keep conspiracy of silence around of the cavitational synthesis.

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